Upper School

Upper School Art

Two major goals guide the visual arts department. The first is the development of technical skill. Each course offers students an active experience with the materials, techniques, processes, and vocabulary necessary for a solid foundational ability and understanding of visual art and design. The second is the development of personal artistic vision. The program offers exciting opportunities for beginning students to discover talents unacknowledged in the past and for advanced students to set in motion their personal artistic vision. Studio courses in design, drawing/painting, ceramics, mixed-media sculpture, photography, and art history and aesthetics seminars provide an environment of stimulating intellectual and creative inquiry.

Art: Studio Art Seminar
This term-long elective course is designed to be an intensive seminar that focuses on artists and art movements from the early 20th century to the present. Emphasis will be placed on the invention of photography and its effect on artists and art making. The format will consist of a rotating schedule of lecture and discussion followed by related studio work. Students will be required to make art and to read, write, and speak about art.

Art Foundations: Drawing
Drawing is a foundations course that builds upon the skills taught in MS Drawing. Students will learn and apply 2D design elements (line, shape, value, pattern), principles (unity, variety, emphasis, rhythm, movement), and concepts (surface, mark, space, composition, scale, materials, intentionality) in their work. The ability to see and translate the visual world into drawing through the refining of technique will be emphasized.

Art Foundations: 3D Design
Three Dimensional Design seeks to expand your understanding of design as it relates to the 3 dimensional world. Working in paper and clay, we will explore concepts of form, series, contour, structure and balance. We will examine the function of space, volume, mass, plane, and line. Sculptural projects will explore the solution of design problems. The main emphasis of this course is the development of thinking skills as they relate to designing three dimensional art forms.

Art Foundations: Ceramics
This term course introduces basic ceramic construction and glaze methods. Design concepts of form, volume, tension and structure are explored using slab and coil methods of construction. Students learn to think three dimensionally in the planning and construction of each project. Further explorations of decorative techniques and glaze methods complete the course. Continuing students will increase and broaden their understanding of ceramics by focusing on expanding methods of construction and decoration.

Art Foundations: Oil Painting
This course is designed to expand students' proficiency and versatility with the medium of oil paint. Time will be spent with projects that explore mostly traditional approaches to imagemaking. Technical fundamentals, long-term painting processes and important contextual precedents are emphasized.

Art Foundations: Sculpture
Sculpture is an elective course that introduces sculptural processes and contemporary modes of thinking about art making.  In addition to classic sculptural techniques, plaster cast objects from molds made by the students will be used in mixedd media compositions.  The work of both historical and contemporary artists will be introduced and discussed as a framework for the students' aesthetic designs.

Art Foundations: Water-Based Painting
This course is designed to expand students' proficiency and versatility with water-based materials. The range of mediums include acrylic paint, gouache, and transparent watercolors. Time will be spent with projects that explore both traditional and non-traditional approaches to image-making. Technique as well as important contextual precedents are emphasized.

Art: Mixed Media Sculpture & Drawing
This mixed-media elective course will introduce alternative materials to explore varied approaches to creating both 2D and 3D works of art.  Painting, drawing, collage, foam, and found objects will be some of the media used in this class. Issues of craftsmanship as well as narrative and formal content will be addressed. Students will engage in discussion of current mixed-media trends in contemporary art, and in critical discussions of their own work and that of their classmates.

Art: Advanced Ceramics
Pre-requisite - Ceramics. This class focuses on mastering methods of making pottery on the potter's wheel. Skills include centering the clay, pulling cylinder forms, making bowls and lidded forms. Students will demonstrate skill centering, throwing, and trimming with successful completion of assignments. The main emphasis of this course is quality craftsmanship in construction of forms, good proportion and relationship of parts and correct use of glaze techniques.

Pre-AP: Drawing/Painting II
Drawing and Painting II is a course designed to introduce technical and material means to visual expression. Students will learn how to see and create correct color and value in works of observational art. We will work with charcoal to explore tonal studies developing form. Principles of color mixing will be emphasized in exercises observing color changes from light to shadow. Mediums include, charcoal, graphite, watercolor, acrylics and water-based oil paints. (Requires permission of Art Department Chair.)

Art: AP Ceramics
This class focuses on mastering methods of making pottery on the potter's wheel. Skills include centering the clay, pulling cylinder forms, making bowls and lidded forms.  Students will demonstrate skill centering, throwing, and trimming with successful completion of assignments. The main emphasis of this course is quality craftsmanship in construction of forms, good proportion and relationship of parts and correct use of glaze techniques.

Art: AP Drawing (Junior Year)
This is the first course in a two-year program that prepares students for the Advanced Placement Portfolio in Studio Art. It allows motivated students to do college-level work and be able to explore a variety of art media and styles. Topics in drawing and painting are studied. Students will begin to take on greater responsibility for the creative thinking that goes into the process of making art. Throughout the course students will look at a variety of artwork, focusing both on traditional and contemporary art, and participating in discussion and assignments that put visual art skill development into a larger context.

Art: AP Drawing (Senior Year)
This is the second course in a two-year program that prepares students for the Advanced Placement Portfolio in Studio Art. It allows motivated students to do college-level work and be able to explore a variety of art media and styles. Topics in drawing and painting are studied. Students will begin to take on greater responsibility for the creative thinking that goes into the process of making art. Throughout the course students will look at a variety of artwork, focusing both on traditional and contemporary art, and participating in discussion and assignments that put visual art skill development into a larger context.

Art: Illustration
Illustration is an elective course designed for students interested in combining their interest and skill in drawing, painting, and collage with the art of story telling. To inform their aesthetic decisions in designing their work for the class students will investigate the history of illustration and book art leading to noteworthy advances in book cover art, children's books, comic books, and contemporary illustration.

Art: Printmaking
This is a term long elective class that gives students the opportunity to explore basic printmaking techniques. Students will learn a wide variety of monotype techniques using the intaglio press. They will also be introduced to relief printmaking through linoleum cuts, woodcuts, or found objects. Large and small-scale prints are produced.

Upper School Computer Science

The Computer Science Department provides students with knowledge of basic computer hardware, software applications, on-line resources and programming languages. Students' knowledge will be sufficiently deep to affect the ways in which they collect, organize, manipulate and ultimately understand information.

Computer Science: Introduction to Java
The primary aim of this course is to give students a meaningful, substantial programming experience. The material covered in this course is the same as that covered in the first term of AP Computer Science A. Students learn Java syntax, develop algorithms, and learn the major concepts of program design in an object-oriented environment. They also explore issues and events from the broader world of technology. There is no prerequisite for this course.

Computer Science: AP Computer Science A
This course teaches concepts and principles of computer science with emphasis on object-oriented programming. The course uses the Java programming language. Students enrolled in this class should take the AP Computer Science A Exam in the spring.  There is no prerequisite for this course but prior programming experience with an object-oriented language is desirable.

Computer Science: HTML
This course will teach fundamentals of web page creation using Hyper-text Markup Language (HTML) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). We will create our pages the "old-fashioned way" using an html-oriented development environment (Brackets from Adobe) to create the html and css files. We will start from the very beginning and move as far into HTML and HTML5 as time permits. No prior programming or HTML experience is required of students who register in this course.

Computer Science: Swift
Swift is Apple's language for creating apps for its mobile devices (iPhone or iPad). This course introduces students to the Swift language and also to Apple's protocols for vetting and accepting apps for sale in the Apple App Store. Students who enroll in this course should have had substantial programming experience with a modern language such as Python or Java.

Computer Science: Unity
Unity is a game development platform that offers great power and flexibility. Students in this course will learn to create game objects that exist in "three-dimensional space." Working with a 3-D graphics editor is also essential in creating Unity games. This course is offered as student interest warrants. It is one to three terms in length, depending on students' interests and availability.

Computer Science: Python
This course is an introduction to object-oriented programming using the Python programming language. It is similar in scope to the first term of the AP Computer Science A course. No prior programming experience is required.

Computer Science: Lisp
Lisp is, historically, an important programming language. It's unique syntax and structure allow students to explore programming concepts in a way that differs significantly from other modern languages such as Python or Java. This course is offered occasionally as students' interest demands.

Computer Science: Arduino​
The Arduino is an open-source electronics platform built on easy-to-use hardware and software. The Arduino is able to read inputs from a wide variety of devices such as a button, an ultrasound distance sensor, and or a joystick. It also sends outputs to devices such as a motor, a speaker or an LED array. Using a version of the C programming language, students program the electronic devices they create. This course is excellent preparation for the Upper School robotics program. It is an introductory course and has no prerequisites.

Computer Science: Hacking
This course is new to the Computer Science curriculum, offered for the first time in Winter Term 2017. The curriculum for the course covers a wide variety of topics including cryptography, computer networks, and programming. The course is offered in the best tradition of hacking which promotes a deep understanding of computer operation and an ability to solve problems across a wide variety of topics. Prior programming experience is desirable.

Upper School Dance

The Dance Department’s Mission is to inspire dance artists and movement thinkers. We foster growth of our artform through study, practice, improvisation, and performance. We strive to maintain a caring and challenging environment that allows for learning and individual expression.

Dance and Culture
This course is open to all students, and is designed as an introduction to dance. This class explores and contextualizes dance in all its forms. This exploration takes dance from the mind to the body, from the studio to the stage, while exploring different styles, cultures and time periods. Students will be connecting the historical, technical, and cultural aspects of dance for the purpose of their own understanding, body awareness, and creative voice. We will use improvisation as a choreographic tool to deepen their connection to dance as an art form.

Dance Technique
This course is for students with some previous dance training. To take this course you must complete 3 terms of Dance and Culture or have permission from the Dance Department Chair to be enrolled. (Prior experience will be considered.) This class continues to build on the primary principles of ballet, jazz and modern dance using a variety of training methods to develop proper strength, flexibility, rhythm and coordination also expanding on body positions, balance, turns, locomotor skills, and jumps. Dance Technique will broaden the study of different dance techniques while exploring even more styles of dance within those genre. We will expand on expression and creative choreography so dancers can create their own choreographic works, building their voice through dance. This class will have two performance opportunities throughout the year to build their strength and confidence on stage and off.

Dance Performance
This course is for intermediate/advanced student who has previously trained in ballet, pointe, and modern technique. Students should get approval from the instructor and/or audition before signing up for this class and plan their schedules to accommodate this course for the full year. This class requires a commitment to 4 or more classes in the Waterford Dance Academy’s Advanced Ballet Technique level OR one must submit to the Dance Department Chair a committed dance class schedule from a local dance studio.  This course is rooted in technique, but is a performance-based class. Performing is the natural end result of hard work put into technique, improvisation, and choreography. It provides students with the opportunities to perform in Fall Term's Halloween Assembly, the Winter Term's Dance production, Arts Week Assembly, and in Spring Term's Dance production. Students will be required to attend a live dance performance and write a critique and discuss dancers who are making an impact in the dance world today.

Upper School Electives

Ancient Roman Literature
The Ancient Roman Literature class will provide students with a first exposure to a the great Latin writers whose works have helped shape our sense of Western Civilization. Students will read works from Catullus, Vergil, Cicero, Plautus, and Horace in translation, while also getting a chance to hear and pronounce bits of the original Latin. Students will be expected to read daily assignments, prepare for and participate in class discussions, write short essays, and deliver a presentation on one of the major authors. The course will fill elective credit toward graduation, and it will serve as one of the minimum of four required academic courses during each term.

Debate
In debate class, students learn the basics of forming and presenting an effective oral argument. They spend significant time on value debate and student congress while working to strengthen extemporaneous speaking skills, research skills, and analytical skills. They learn to think quickly and to express themselves well under pressure.  Students have the opportunity to compete in regional and statewide debate tournaments.

Yearbook Staff
The yearbook is a student publication; it is a laboratory for learning. It provides an opportunity for students to define, enlarge, and chronicle the Waterford experience, building each year upon the experience and view of the past. The challenge for the editor and staff is to look beyond the obvious, to capture the individual growth and development taking place. In the book's 160 pages, the staff attempts to portray the broad reach of Waterford from PreK to Class XII. Under the direction of the advisor, staff members develop mastery in photography, theme development, layout, graphics, computer design, writing, editing, proofreading, and marketing. Student editors also learn leadership skills as they work with deadlines that are packed tightly in a six month period.

French Cinema: "Paris in Film"
Since the beginning of film history, Paris has occupied an outsized place in the cosmopolitan cultural imagination: The city has been a source of fascination for both French and non-French directors for decades. This course will examine different representations of the City of Light in the work of an international cast of directors, including (but not limited to) Renoir, Minnelli, Haneke, and Jeunet. We will discuss how different films promote and critique the visual and cultural cliches familiar to anyone acquainted with Paris. We will also delve into the technical aspects of film making to understand better how form (i.e., perspective, narration, lighting, etc.) exemplifies the meaning these films are trying to communicate. Films will be in French with English subtitles; class discussion and assignments will be in English.

Latin: 4
This elective course is an intensive Latin grammar course that will prepare students for a standardized assessment of Latin competency. Students will read excerpts from ancient Roman literature in addition to gaining a thorough understanding of Latin grammar. Participation in this course includes a mandatory lunch lab. Students in this class commit to a rigorous schedule of memorization and testing. Cultural and mythological topics will be tied to the readings in class. Students are expected to have mastered the concepts and vocabulary of Latin I, II, and III in order to continue into Latin IV.  All students are required to obtain permission from the director of the Latin program before starting this class. Interested students should bear in mind that this course will NOT fulfill the World Languages graduation requirement. Students must take three years in Upper School of a modern language (either French, Spanish, or Chinese).

Mexico Through Film
This course will explore the relationship between poverty, emigration, and NAFTA. At a time when immigration reform in the US is a national debate gaining, momentum, we will study Mexico from its Revolution in 1910 through the effects of NAFTA in 1994 and its relationship with the United States today. We will study at least portions of the following films: Los olvidados (film), The other side of immigration (documentary), Excerpts of A Day without a Mexican (mockumentary), Maquilapolis (documentary), and La misma luna (film).

Upper School English

The goal of the Waterford English curriculum is to increase students' critical thinking, speaking, and writing skills while engendering a deep appreciation for the study of literature. In the Middle School years, students experience the major forms of literature as readers, writers, and often performers in an effort to encourage their appreciation for the full range of literary expression. They review the conventions and vocabulary of English usage and grammar to prepare for the more intensive writing that awaits them in Upper School. In the Upper School years, students situate texts within historical, philosophical, and literary contexts, honing their understanding through discussion and writing. Discussion-based classes guide student learning through modeling, analysis, drafting, discussion, workshop, revision and evaluation. With the ability to craft and articulate one's thoughts comes insight into the self, the world, and the power of language. Literature is a mirror to the world; learning to analyze and appreciate literature prepares students for a richer engagement with their environment.

English IX: World Literature
Class IX English is a year-long World LIterature course. It asks students to consider formally the question "What is literature?" as they practice literary analysis and critical exposition. Students explore this question through careful textual study and discuss their conclusions using a required set of literary terms, placing emphasis on the identification and function of specific stylistic devices. Students are always encouraged to question "why did the author make these choices?" in their examination of literary forms. The course places particular emphasis on texts that tell the stories of individuals attempting to create order in a world of chaos, continuing a discussion of leadership from Class VIII into an in-depth analysis of individual's choices and the impact on society. Students undertake extensive study and exercise in writing, building on an understanding of paragraph structure to expand beyond the traditional five paragraph essay.

English X: British Literature
Class X English is a year-long survey of British literature. Texts used include selected Shakespeare plays, and various British novelsm short stories, and poetry. The course undertakes both close analysis of the texts and discussion of the broader themes and intellectual movements that informed these works. Frequent essays serve to sharpen students' analytical and expository skills and are used to develop their understanding and mastery of the process of literary analysis. Quizzes, memorizations, and exams foster mastery of the material. Creative writing exercises inspire a new level of informed appreciation for the richness and subtlety of our common literary heritage.

English XI: American Literature
Class XI English is a year-long survey course of American literature. It prepares students to be high-level thinkers, readers and writers. The course introduces students to cannonical works from early American literature and more contemporary novels, plays, short stories, and poetry as well. Students engage with texts to sharpen their analytic skills and write essays to demonstrate their growing ability to synthesize close reading, broader analysis, and beautiful writing.

English XII: AP English Literature and Composition
Advanced Placement English is a year-long course offering college-level study of literary analysis and exposition in preparation for the AP Exam in English Literature and Composition. Students who successfully complete the sequence will be ready for advanced study of English in college, and will possess the tools to write a college essay with a strong central idea, thesis, and supporting argument. In addition to gaining sophistication as readers and writers, students enrolled in this course should gain a deep appreciation for the quality of intellectual stimulation -- and thrill -- that comes from real engagement with great literature.

English XII: Contemporary Poetry
This term-long course will guide students through an engaging encounter with poetry of the 20th and 21st Centuries, ranging in source from turn of the 19th-to-20th century literary movements to contemporary poets publishing today. The ultimate goal of the course will be to give the students an understanding of how poetic forms reflect the historical events, philosophical concerns and aesthetic evolutions of their day. Reading assignments will be short, but the level of attention expected from students will be high. Students can expect to improve their reading and analysis skills, and to hone their ability to explain themselves clearly and forcefully in writing. Assignments will include frequent short writing assignments in response to readings, and two or three longer essays about groups of poems or individual authors.

English XII: Short Fiction
Short Fiction will provide soon-to-graduate Waterford seniors with a rich farewell to their high school years of literature study. This course will present students with a capstone experience in the formal, critical analysis of literature. The breadth of the readings will be significant, across both nineteenth and twentieth century American Literature. We will read both short stories and novellas, drawing upon texts from writers such as Herman Melville, Mark Twain, Henry James, Edith Wharton, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, and Flannery O'Connor.

English XII: Writing Colloquium
The Class XII Writing Colloquium is an intensive, workshop-based course in written composition, critical evaluation of writing, and refinement of technique. The course commences with short, focused writing exercises, proceeds through several assignments aimed at refining various techniques of good writing, and concludes with a larger project requiring cross-disciplinary exploration. Along the way, the use of writing as a vehicle of learning, rather than merely as a form of communication, is emphasized. Readings provide models of excellent writing, give instruction in the emulation of those models, and suggest topics for students' projects. Students will craft personal essays, rhetorical and literary analyses, and complete research papers.

English: Creative Writing
This course is designed to introduce students to a multitude of forms in creative writing, exploring lyric and narrative structures in fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, as well as mixed media and literary forms that seem to defy definition.  Each term will touch on a variety of forms, offering students exposure to traditional and contemporary model works. This course will emphasize process, guiding students from brainstorm and drafting phases through workshop and revision. This is a student-centered course that relies on strong participation; although one of our main goals is to design and publish a literary magazine at the end of the year, our primary focus remains on fueling the passion, insight, and satisfaction that comes through honing skills in creative writing.

Upper School World Languages

The goals of the World Languages department are to encourage and train students to become proficient in their chosen language, as well as instill in students a love of learning World Languagess. Proficiency includes not only all four language skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) but also proficiency in the target language's literature, art, politics, history, and cultures. As a school, we aim to prepare our students to become citizens of the world by acquainting them to new modes of thinking and living. By this, we mean to develop in our students an ability to think critically and flexibly about ideas and issues that affect the global citizen everyday. For this purpose, our program offers different languages such as Latin in Middle School, and Spanish, French, and Mandarin Chinese in Upper School. Our US program also offers an advanced program which culminates with an AP course or elective advanced literature and culture courses that mirror the demands of a third-year language class in university.

Chinese
French
Spanish

Chinese 1
This course is an introduction to the Mandarin Chinese language. It is designed with beginning learners in mind. It introduces students to Chinese with extensive practice, use of visuals, and interactive activities. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) from the beginning, students are better prepared to become proficient speakers of the language. Students build a strong foundation of correct pronunciation, tones, and simplified hanzi (Chinese characters). Basic grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Chinese culture and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. Themes introduced include greetings, family, dates & time, hobbies, and visiting friends. The relationship between the Chinese language and culture is highlighted through art, music, film, current events, and activities from the Chinese speaking world.

Chinese 2
This course is a continuation of the study of the Mandarin Chinese language. It is designed with second-year learners in mind. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) students continue to learn to become proficient speakers of the language. Students build on their foundation of hanzi (Chinese characters), and they learn several hundred more. Additional basic grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit so that students learn to express themselves in a progressively more sophisticated way. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Chinese culture and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. Themes introduced include making appointments, studying Chinese, school life, shopping, and transportation. The relationship between the Chinese language and culture is highlighted through art, music, film, current events, and activities from the Chinese speaking world.

Chinese 3
This is an intermediate-level Chinese course, designed with third-year learners in mind. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) students continue to learn to become proficient speakers of the language. Students build on their foundation of hanzi (Chinese characters), and learn several hundred more. Intermediate grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit so that students learn to express themselves in a progressively more sophisticated way. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Chinese culture and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. Some themes that are introduced include weather, dining out, asking directions, social gatherings, and health. The relationship between the Chinese language and culture is highlighted through art, music, film, current events, and activities from the Chinese speaking world.

Chinese 4
The fourth-year course builds upon Level 3, and is designed to help students achieve upper-intermediate Chinese proficiency skills. This also prepares students for the demands of a third-year university language course or the rigors of a pre-AP course. Students are required to learn and use more advanced vocabulary and idioms. They learn several hundred more simplified hanzi (Chinese characters), and how to use them in increasingly sophisticated sentences. Greater emphasis is placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich expression. Students are required to use the target language almost exclusively in the classroom. Emphasis is placed on the ability to narrate stories, synthesize information, and give strong presentations. Students regularly respond to writing prompts, and then discuss them in class. All assignments continue to foster students’ interpretive, interactive, or presentational skills.

Chinese 5
Chinese 5 builds on the foundation of AP Chinese, and extends students’ proficiency through gradually more sophisticated readings, discussions, and writing assignments. The first term introduces adaptations of classics, such as The Secret Garden, The Monkey’s Paw, and Great Expectations, adapted into fully localized Chinese versions of the original stories. The second term begins with of a selection of abridged versions of 15 award-winning short stories and novellas written by contemporary Chinese writers, reflecting the everyday life of ordinary Chinese people. The third term focuses on unabridged post-1990 short stories by prominent writers such as Su Tong and Yu Hua, whose novels Raise the Red Lantern and To Live served as the basis for internationally acclaimed films. These short stories collectively reflect the zeitgeist of modern China.

AP Chinese
AP Chinese helps students achieve upper-intermediate proficiency in Mandarin Chinese listening, speaking, reading, and writing, with the overall aim of successfully taking the AP Chinese Exam. Students regularly engage with authentic listening and reading tasks. They learn several hundred more simplified hanzi (Chinese characters), and how to use them in increasingly sophisticated sentences. Emphasis is placed on the ability to narrate stories, respond to email messages, engage in conversations, and give cultural presentations. Students regularly respond to writing prompts, and then discuss them in class. Themes that are discussed include Chinese festivals, Chinese history, travel, health, social issues, and environmental topics. Many additional aspects of Chinese culture are explored, particularly as they enhance the students' ability to communicate effectively.

French 1
This course is an introduction to the French language, and is designed with beginning learners in mind. It introduces students to French with lots of practice, visuals, and interactive activities. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) from the beginning, students are better prepared to become proficient speakers of the language. Students learn useful phrases and vocabulary and practice basic skills such as greetings, introductions and talking about themselves and others. Unit vocabulary themes include family, school, days and months, numbers, food, telling time and more. Basic grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Francophone cultures and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. The relationship between the French language and French culture is highlighted through art, music, and activities from the Francophone world.

French 2
This course is a continuation to the introductory study of the French language, and is designed with second-year learners in mind. It introduces students to Spanish with lots of practice, visuals, and interactive activities. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) from the beginning, students are better prepared to become proficient speakers of the language. Students learn useful phrases and vocabulary and practice basic skills such as talking about themselves and others in a progressively more sophisticated way. Unit vocabulary themes include sports, traditions, work, food, health, art and social changes. Basic grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Francophone cultures and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. The relationship between the French language and French culture is highlighted through art, music, and activities from the Francophone world.

French 3
This is an advanced French course designed to prepare students for the demands of a third-year university language course. Students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in French and students are required to use French in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

French 3 Honors
This is an advanced French course designed to prepare students for the demands of the pre-AP and the AP language courses. Students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in French and students are required to use French in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments are assigned. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

French 4
This is an advanced French course designed to prepare students for the demands of a third-year university language course. Students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in French and students are required to use French in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments are assigned. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

French 4 Honors
This is an advanced French course designed to prepare students for the demands of the pre-AP and the AP language courses. Students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in French and students are required to use French in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments are assigned. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

French Literature and Culture
This is an advanced French course designed to extend the development of language skills through the exploration of literature and culture from the French-speaking world. Students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required at home to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in French and students are required to use French in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

AP French
This is an advanced French course designed to prepare students to take and pass the AP French exam at the end of the year. In this rigorous course, students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required at home to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in French and students are required to use French in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

Spanish 1
This course is an introduction to the Spanish language, designed with beginning learners in mind. It introduces students to Spanish with lots of practice, visuals, and interactive activities. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) from the beginning, students are better prepared to become proficient speakers of the language. Basic grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Hispanic cultures and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. The relationship between the Spanish language and the Spanish culture is highlighted through art, music, and activities from the Hispanic world.

Spanish 1a
This course is an introduction to the Spanish language that has been designed to move at a more gradual pace than the Spanish 1 course. The course introduces students to Spanish with lots of practice, visuals, and interactive activities. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) from the beginning, students are better prepared to become proficient speakers of the language. Basic grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Hispanic cultures and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. The relationship between the Spanish language and the Spanish culture is highlighted through art, music, and activities from the Hispanic world.

Spanish 2
This course is a continuation to the introductory study of the Spanish language. This course is designed with second-year learners in mind. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) students continue to learn to become proficient speakers of the language. Basic grammar principles, writing and listening exercises, and speaking activities are integrated into each unit so that students learn to express themselves in a progressively more sophisticated way. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Hispanic cultures and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. The relationship between the Spanish language and Spanish culture is highlighted through art, music, and activities from the Hispanic world.

Spanish 2a
This course is designed as the second year continuation of the Spanish 1a introduction, following a similar  pacing and design to that introductory course. It continues to introduce students to Spanish with lots of practice, visuals, and interactive activities. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) from the beginning, students are better prepared to become proficient speakers of the language. Students learn useful phrases and vocabulary and practice speaking in increasingly sophisticated ways. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Hispanic cultures and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. The relationship between the Spanish language and Spanish culture is highlighted through art, music, and activities from the Hispanic world.

Spanish 3
This is an advanced Spanish course designed to prepare students for the demands of a third-year university language course. In this rigorous course, students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in Spanish and students are required to use Spanish in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

Spanish 3a
This course is designed with third-year learners in mind. It builds upon knowledge gained in Spanish 1a & 2a as a continuation and recycling of knowledge acquired in these previous years adding new vocabulary, structures and expressions. It introduces students to Spanish with lots of practice, visuals, and interactive activities. By integrating all four of the language skills (reading, speaking, listening, and writing) from the beginning, students are better prepared to become proficient speakers of the language. Students learn useful phrases and vocabulary and practice speaking in increasingly sophisticated ways. Unit vocabulary themes include health, transportation, art and social changes. Students will be expected to expand their vocabulary range to include more sophisticated terms, use advanced language expressions, verb tenses and grammatical concepts such as the imperfect and the subjunctive mood. The goal of Spanish 3a is to provide students with the opportunity to acquire a more advanced level of communication at a beneficial lower pace. In addition to grammar and vocabulary, students learn about Hispanic cultures and are encouraged to think critically with essential questions. The relationship between the Spanish language and Spanish culture is highlighted through art, music, and activities from the Hispanic world.

Spanish 3 Honors
This is an advanced Spanish course designed to prepare students for the demands of the pre-AP and AP language courses. In this rigorous course, students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required at home to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in Spanish and students are required to use Spanish in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

Spanish 4
This is an advanced Spanish course designed to prepare students for the demands of a third-year university language courses. In this rigorous course, students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required at home to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in Spanish and students are required to use Spanish in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

Spanish 4  Honors
This is an advanced Spanish course designed to prepare students for the demands of the pre-AP and AP language courses. In this rigorous course, students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in Spanish and students are required to use Spanish in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

Spanish Literature & Culture
This is an advanced Spanish course designed to extend the development of language skills through the exploration of literature and culture from the Spanish-speaking world. In this rigorous course, students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required to practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in Spanish and students are required to use Spanish in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

AP Spanish
This is an advanced Spanish course designed to prepare students to take and pass the AP Spanish exam at the end of the year. In this rigorous course, students will be required to learn and use advanced vocabulary and idiomatic expressions. We will review major grammatical structures in an effort to master each use. For this, regular practice at home will be expected. Great emphasis will be placed on speaking with fluency, grammatical correctness, and rich vocabulary. Several writing assignments will be required at practice formal and informal writing. Class will be conducted in Spanish and students are required to use Spanish in the classroom. Out of class reading, written and oral assignments will be required. Those will focus on relevant literary, cultural, artistic, and historical topics to practice the language at a more sophisticated level.

Upper School History

The History Department has the goal of producing graduates who can think, read, and write critically, and who can use this learning to become better citizens of the world. Our students will understand that the way history has been interpreted changes over time, which reflects not only new information about the past becoming available but also the changing perspectives of historians themselves. We want our students to be challenged by rigorous courses that are designed to promote the development of personal opinions as well as to provide a safe space to engage in civil discourse and the discussion of opposing opinions. We want our students to love history as we do and see it as a way to understand the complexity of the human condition.

History IX: Human Geography
This course introduces students to new ways to study society, from economics and demographics to statistical analysis. Students are taken through several themes, like globalization, urbanization, and the spread of language and religion. Students also learn to write analytical essays using varied sources and utilize new technologies to map the larger world. By exposing students to unfamiliar parts of the world, and providing different ways to study those areas, they are prepared to more fully engage the more traditional history courses which follow.

History X: Standard European
This course is a survey of modern European history from the Middle Ages through the 20th century. In addition to a textbook, students read several works of historical fiction. A primary focus of this course is to help students develop a deeper understanding of the historian's craft. To this end, students not only hone key skills necessary for evaulating and using sources to write history but they also produce their own peice of original scholarship over the course of the year. In the process, students learn not only how historians develop topics but also how they efficiently take and arrange notes to produce persuasive arguments.

History X: AP European
This is a rigorous, college-level course that seeks to introduce students to the materials and methods of modern history.  Students should expect to spend one hour every night on the reading assignments, and should expect tests based on the types of questions asked on the national exam. The course covers European history from roughly 1400 to the present.  All along the way, students will be preparing for the European history Advanced Placement exam administered nationally every May.

History XI: Standard US
This introductory course takes the student through the history of the United States from Columbus's encounters with the New World through the present. Students see the wide scope of American history through political, social, and cultural history. Beyond learning the chronological story of America, students grapple with primary sources and learn the steps historians take to understand the past. The course incorporates a textbook for background context but expands with articles, artwork, and historians' analyses. Through writing, students learn to make persuasive arguments supported by evidence.

History XI: AP US
This college introductory course provides the student with a chronological survey of American history from European contact to the present. The course's rigor demands an average of one hour of homework per night. In addition to a textbook, the course places particular focus on teaching students how to analyze and incorporate historical sources into their writing. The course's assignments are oriented toward preparing students for the AP Exam in May.

History XII: Poverty & Social Change
This class offers students the opportunity to approach and learn about social issues and poverty in an academic setting.  This class allows students to go beyond trying to solve social issues and look at the roots of ongoing problems. Students will be asked to consider what they, personally, can do to benefit the larger community. Literature, articles, and history texts will be used to educate the students to the current problems and solutions and compare them to the past.  The goal of this class is to teach students how to ask the right questions so that they can then find answers on their own using their individual talents and personalities.

History XII: FBI & 20th Century American History
In this term-long course, student will be exposed to the history of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. By looking at its foundation, its key figures, and its critical moments, students will get a greater understanding of this bureau's role in shaping American history in the twentieth century. We will explore the troublesome history of the Bureau in regards to civil rights, its often unchecked authority, and the importance of personality in shaping the Bureau's actions. The course will culminate with a research paper in released FBI files, offering students a chance to not only examine sources few have seen, but also the opportunity to hone skills needed at college.

History: 20th Century - Pacific War
This term elective course will examine World War II in the Pacific including Japan's expansion on the continent, the fighting between Japan and China, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the multifaceted Allied campaign in the Pacific, and the bombing of Japan which culminated in the atom bombs being dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The course will examine the major themes of the Pacific War through primary and secondary texts, and also through several films (both documentary and feature) that will help the students get the feel of the times and places central to this conflict.

History: Economics & Entrepreneurship
This year-long course will offer an exploration of classical economics, entrepreneurship, and business ethics through a curriculum that uses both theoretical models and hands-on experience in addressing business opportunities and problems. Students will develop a rigorous grasp of the price theory model, and then will apply their knowledge to projects that require entrepreneurial thinking, such as making aspects of Waterford's program more responsive to the market it serves. In addition, the course will include exercises that explore the ethical foundations of business. Motivated students will have the opportunity to prepare for the AP Microeconomics exam.

History: Environmental History
Much of history treats the environment as only a stage upon which humans acted out the past. In this course, students will challenge the idea that the environment is a static historical actor by examining the environment's role in American history. This course will examine the consequences and responses to how humans have shaped nature (plantations, mines, dams, national parks, hunting practices, suburban backyards), to how nature has altered human history (droughts, insect infestations, floods, earthquakes, disease outbreaks, urban heat waves) and to how the environment has influenced politics and philosophy (Transcendentalism, Deep Ecology, and the Green Party).

History: Environmental Writing
Increasingly, we are confronted with environmental issues every day of our lives, both global and local. On the one hand we are alerted to the fact that the earth's oceans will lose between ten and twenty percent of their coral reefs this year, due to coral bleaching caused by warming ocean waters, and on the other we must decide whether the Mountain Accord is a reasonable compromise that will assure effective stewardship of our beloved Wasatch Mountains into future years. It is ever more important that we develop a deeper understanding of our personal relationship with the earth's environment. This course will provide a chronological survey of American environmental writing from H.D. Thoreau to Terry Tempest Williams. Along the way we will read the essays and creative non-fiction of John Muir, Teddy Roosevelt, Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson, Edward Abbey, Wendell Berry, Barry Lopez, and many others. Throughout, we will try to develop a more thorough understanding of the social, political, and economic dimensions of environmental issues.

History: French Animation
In this elective course, students will study the history of French animation as a way to describe, survive and comprehend some of the most difficult moments in history. Students will study and respond to various pieces of animation (be it film, graphic poem or newspaper cartoon) in order to understand and formulate an opinion on the relationship between the "infantile" medium of animation and its power to communicate complex political, social and personal issues.

History: French Cinema
This course will introduce students to the history and culture of France through the medium of film. The films are intended to engender dialogue about historical and cultural themes, giving students the chance to express themselves on a vareity of topics. This course will be offered in English and all work will be done in English.

History: Historical Methods
In this term-long course, students will critically evaluate major historical methods as they appear in works of fiction. We will consider oral history, the use of archival documents, narrative, and personal experience as ways of establishing authority and legitimacy in historical writing. We will do so through compelling works of literature - Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, Dracula, and The Education of Little Tree - that fall along the spectrum from historical fiction to fantastical tales to outright lies.

History: Mexico Through Film
This course will explore the relationship between Mexico and the United States through film and documentary. At a time when immigration reform in the US is a national debate, we will study Mexico from its Revolution in 1910 to the present. This course is offered in English and all work will be done in English.

History: The American Civil Rights' Movement
The Civil Rights class is a term-long class studying the history of the Civil Rights Movement in America. There will be an overview of the historical events at the beginning of the term, and then we will focus on our primary text, David Halberstam’s book, The Children. Halberstam was a newspaper reporter in Nashville, Tennessee, when eight college students and a teacher put to practice the civil disobedience philosophy with sit-ins. These students began in Nashville and ultimately ended up becoming important leaders in the Civil Rights Movement. By reading about a small group of young students making such a difference, the students will be able to not only gain a more intimate view of the sacrifices people made, but also to ask themselves, “What can I do to make a difference?” Other readings and primary documents from both famous leaders as well as ordinary citizens will be referenced as we look at the beginnings of this movement and the philosophies, personalities and politics that shaped this momentous time in American history.

History: Crime and Punishment
On March 28, 1787, attempted regicide Robert-François Damiens was brought to the Place de Grève in Paris for execution. For his crime against the state, he was subjected to the cruelest of early modern punishments: his body was drawn and quartered. Europe was violent beyond imagination in the eighteenth century, and this course will explain the development of criminality, and the philosophical rationales utilized by authorities to justify punishment. Our efforts will concentrate on England and France, and we will pay special attention to shifting senses of masculinity, the development of new criminal behaviors, and the "civilizing process" that reduced crime through a collection of primary and secondary readings.

History: Du Bois's America
W.E.B. Du Bois was born three years after the Civil War and died on the eve of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech. During that time he was one of the foremost scholars on race in the United States. The first black man to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard, he struggled throughout his 95 year life to make sense of racism and the meaning of America. In this course we’ll take a deep look at Du Bois’s writing to seek a better understanding of those same topics and the author himself. An ideal college preparation course for those interested in history, literature, or politics.

Upper School Mathematics

The goal of our Upper School math program is to offer a wide range of courses that will challenge each of our students at the appropriate level for their age, ability and needs.  Students gain critical mathematical thinking skills including algebraic thinking and problem solving using technology when appropriate. After completing foundational courses, students have options to pursue further studies in advanced mathematics and applied mathematics.  A student's mathematical power increases as the student is required to explore, to conjecture, to reason, to solve non-routine problems, to communicate mathematically and to make mathematical connections between concepts and among disciplines.

Math: US Algebra
Algebra is the first course in the core curriculum at Waterford.  It is a course that generalizes the arithmetic of early years into a formal, symbolic language.  Each student is introduced to the various aspects related to understanding algebra: its skills, its properties, its uses, and its representations.  During the year, a student develops mathematical power meaning the ability to explore, to conjecture, to reason logically, to solve non-routine problems, to communicate about mathematics, and to connect mathematical ideas.  Students in the Algebra curriculum study the use of variables and operations involving algebraic symbols. They learn how to solve different types algebraic sentences, including linear and quadratic equations and inequalities.  They work with exponents, radicals, and rational expressions and they learn how to solve and graph linear and quadratic equations.

Math: US Geometry
Geometry connects the physical and visual world with the students' previous knowledge of algebra. Upper School Geometry is taught in three distinct terms.  In Fall Term, the curriculum is organized around a traditional Euclidean geometry. Students explore relationships among lengths, angles and triangles. The focus this term is on providing a first look and exploration with an axiomatic mathematical system and students begin to learn how to justify and prove their own thinking using both informal and formal methods.  In Winter Term, the course focuses on developing geometric formulas and exploring properties of other geometric shapes, including three-dimensional shapes. During this term, students are also introduced to right triangle trigonometry and learn to use the trigonometric ratios to solve real-world problems. In Spring Term, the geometry curriculum shifts to coordinate geometry.  Students review and expand their algebraic skills in order to study some of the geometric concepts on a coordinate plane. Students learn the algebra that is connected with the geometric concepts such as slope, parallel and perpendicular lines, circles, and intersection points. Students use hand-held and other technology to explore and answer questions they previously could not using only analytic techniques.  Upon completion of this course students are prepared for Algebra 2.

Math: Algebra 2
Algebra 2 is a continuation of the study of Algebra, tackling concepts and skills beyond linear and quadratic equations.  It introduces the student to the skills, properties, uses and representations of the more complex aspects of algebra. A student's mathematical power increases as the student is required to explore, to conjecture, to reason, to solve non-routine problems, to communicate mathematically and to make mathematical connections between concepts and among disciplines.  The course covers the specific topics of functions including polynomial, power, rational, exponential and logarithmic; sequences and series. Students learn to connect the analytic representation with numerical and graphical representations. Students learn to use technology as a tool to explore and solve problems previously inaccessible using basic skills of analysis.  

Math: Algebra 2 Honors
Algebra 2 Honors is an enriched Algebra 2 course where students continue their study of Algebra, tackling concepts and skills beyond linear and quadratic equations.  This course introduces the student to the skills, properties, uses and representations of the more complex aspects of algebra and requires students to understand, prove and extend the theorems and properties presented in the Algebra 2 curriculum.  The student's mathematical power increases as the student is required to explore, to conjecture, to reason, to solve non-routine problems, to communicate mathematically and to make mathematical connections between concepts and among disciplines. The course covers the specific topics of functions including polynomial, power, rational, exponential and logarithmic; sequences and series and matrices.  Students learn to connect analytic representations with numerical and graphical representations and do so in many applied settings. Students learn to use technology as a tool to explore and solve problems previously inaccessible using basic skills of analysis. The Algebra 2 Honors course builds on the theoretical foundation established in a formal Geometry course and prepares students to continue in the accelerated Honors Precalculus course.  Students are placed in this course by teacher recommendation or by test.

Math: Precalculus 1
Precalculus 1 is a course designed to formalize and intensify a student's understanding of functions.  Students learn to work both analytically and graphically with functions. They review polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions and are introduced to trigonometric functions. Students study trigonometry (both right triangle and functions) in depth, learning how to solve equations as well and provide identities and formulas involving the trigonometric ratios.  Throughout the entire course, students learn how to model real world problems using their library of functions. Students use handheld and other technology to explore and answer questions they previously could not using only analytic techniques.

Math: Precalculus 2
PreCalculus 2 is a continuation of the Precalculus 1 curriculum.  It introduces and focuses on both infinte (continuous) and finite (discrete) processes.  Its topics include functions of many kinds, polar coordinates, complex numbers, advanced trigonometry and vectors, and introductions to the basic concepts of calculus:  derivatives and integrals. In addition, in this course students delve into some topics of discrete mathematics, looking at the finite and iterative processes. Its topics include logic, sequences, algorithms, recursion and induction, combinatorics, graphs, and networks.  The focus of this course is developing students' mathematical thinking in the context of these new and somewhat unfamiliar math topics. Students use handheld and other technology to explore and answer questions they previously could not using only analytic techniques. After completing this course, students are prepared for advanced study in Calculus or Statistics.

Math: Precalculus Honors
Precalculus Honors is an accelerated course that covers the two courses Precalculus 1 and Precalculus 2 in one year. Students learn to work with functions both analytically and graphically.  They review polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions and are introduced to trigonometric functions. Students study trigonometry (both right triangle and functions) in depth, learning how to solve equations as well and prove identities and formulas involving the trigonometric ratios.  In addition, students learn polar coordinates, complex numbers, advanced trigonometry and vectors, and are introduced limits. Also, students become familiar with the discrete mathematics including logic, sequences, algorithms, recursion and induction, combinatorics, graphs, and networks. Throughout the entire course, students learn how to model real world problems using their library of functions.  Students use handheld and other technology to explore and answer questions they previously could not using only analytic techniques. This course moves quickly and upon completion, students are prepared for the AP Calculus AB course. Students are placed in this course by teacher recommendation or test.

Math: Calculus
The course is rigorous and thorough study of Calculus, but is a step back from the demands of the AP Calculus curriculum.  It is designed for students who are prepared and interested in calculus but lack the time required for a thorough preparation for the AP Exam.  This course will include a review of Precalculus topics and functions and then introduces students to limits, differential calculus, integral calculus and applications of calculus. After taking this course, students are very well prepared for AP Calculus or any other college level calculus course.  

Math: AP Calculus AB
The curriculum of the Advanced Placement Calculus AB course follows the specifications required by the College Board.  Specific topics include an extensive study of the common functions including exponential, logarithmic, rational, and trigonometric; limits and continuity; derivatives and differentials; techniques of differentiation; applications of differentiation; antiderivatives, integration, differential equations and applications of integration.  Students learn to connect the analytic representations with numerical and graphical representations and do so in many applied settings. This approach allows formal definitions and proofs to evolve from extended exposure to common sense investigation, rather than memorizing abstract algorithms. In addition, students focus on gaining advanced skills in communicating mathematical thoughts and reasoning.  Finally, students are taught appropriate uses of hand-held and other technology that will allow them to explore and solve problems previously inaccessible using basic skills of analysis. Students are expected to take the AP Calculus AB exam at the completion of the course.

Math: AP Calculus BC
The curriculum of the Advanced Placement Calculus BC course follows the specifications required by the College Board.  This course is designed to be a continuation of the Advanced Placement Calculus AB curriculum. While continually reviewing the basic calculus topics covered in the AP Calculus AB curriculum, students learn the new topics of infinite series (including power, geometry and Taylor polynomials); the calculus of conic sections and polar coordinate; three-dimensional analytic geometry, vector functions and curvilinear motion, vector integral calculus, differential equations, vectors and vector fields, parametric equations.  A prerequisite for this course is successful completion of AP Calculus AB. Students are expected to take the AP Calculus BC exam.

Math: Introduction to Statistics
This term-long course focuses on introducing students to the use of statistics from a practical standpoint.  Students will learn the language and symbols of statistics and will learn how statistics are appropriately and inappropriately used in the world around us.  Students will also be introduced to techniques for gathering data as well as making decisions based on those statistics. This course is open to any student who is not currently enrolled or who has not completed the AP Statistics curriculum.  

Math: AP Statistics
The curriculum of the Advanced Placement Statistics course follows the specification required by the College Board.  The purpose of this course is to provide a practical introduction to statistics. As such, the focus is primarily on the statistical thinking behind data gathering and interpretation with less emphasis on computation and theory.  General topics taught in this course are producing data, organizing data and statistical inference. Producing data will include learning the ideas behind what constitutes "good" data, how to select samples and design studies and experiments.  Organizing data includes learning the methods and strategies for exploring, organizing and describing data using graphs and numerical summaries. Students learn techniques of decision-making using probability including statistical tests of inference (z-tests, t-tests and Chi-squared tests) as well as confidence intervals. Students learn to use hand-held and other technology to help them tackle statistical problems from real-world data.

Math: Advanced Topics
This course is designed for advanced math students who have already completed the full breadth of our other math courses, including all Advanced Placement courses.  This course is taught as three separate term courses. Content for each term is determined by teacher and by interest of students, and has included topics such as linear algebra, number theory, multivariate calculus, the history of mathematics and advanced proof and reasoning.  Students may enroll in Advanced Topics multiple years or after completing this course one year, may design an independent study course with a math faculty member.

Math: College Prepatory Mathematics
This term-long course focuses on making sure students are prepared for the rigor and content of an entry level college math course.  Topics will vary from term to term and may include a review of previous math curriculum, quantitative reasoning, number theory, formal logic, set theory, and probability.  This is not designed for students who have completed an AP level math course at Waterford. Rather, this will help make sure students have a familiarity with the mathematics that they will be expected to master before graduation from college.

Math: Introduction to Statistics
The term-long Introduction to Statistics Course is a one-term course designed to introduce students to the language and decision making process used in a world full of data.  Students will learn to see the world around them through the eyes of a statistician, from data gathering, experimental and observational design. The course reviews basic probability in order to understand the decision making process used to draw conclusions from data. This course is not open to students how are currently enrollled in or who had already taken AP Statistics.

Math: Introduction to Financial Math
This term-long course introduces students to basics of financial mathematics.  Students will learn various applications of mathematics in the real world including loans, mortgages, taxes, annuities and the like.  The course will also focus on applications of personal finances including savings, credit and investments. In addition, students will learn to use spreadsheets to analyze real life budgets and track investments.  This course is open to students of any mathematical background.

Upper School Music

The goal of the Waterford music program is to teach students how to love music in all its form, preparing them for a lifetime of enjoyment and added enrichment. The best way to develop a deep love for music is to know what musicians know, and to do what musicians do. Through detailed interaction with the art form in one of several performance ensembles, Waterford students sharpen their musical perception and sensitivity, while also building skill as musicians. Students study music history and music theory, but most importantly they perform the great music of the world as singers, instrumentalists, and composers.

Music: US Chamber Singers
Students explore their individual talents and potential as it relates to ensemble singing of many different styles of vocal music.  Drawing heavily on Kodaly-based training, they acquire and develop the listening, singing, reading and interpretive skills which are required of confident and successful performers. There is increased emphasis on independence in part-singing, dynamic shadings, intonation, vowel coloring, balance, style, precision, blending, and performance. As each choir develops its own identity, students gain facility in cultivating group unity and personal reliability, both in character and in performance.  In addition, each student must prepare and perform solos during the year. In this way, individual voice development can be supported, as well as the ensemble sound. Theory homework and vocal practice is expected of students enrolled in this course. Voice lessons are encouraged. Audition required.

Music: Select Choir
This auditioned ensemble will rehearse and prepare advanced music for mixed voices in 4-8 parts. Repertoire is normally a cappella and explores a wide range of genres from a variety of time periods. The Select Choir maintains a full performance calendar with opportunities both on and off campus such as Waterford concerts, civic performances, Waterford meetings, Solo/Ensemble festival, annual Masterworks festival, HS exchanges, and other opportunities as they arise. Students in Select Choir must be concurrently enrolled in C-block Chamber Singers to be eligible for the ensemble.

Music: US Jazz Ensemble
This course is an introduction to jazz and related musical styles with emphasis on improvisation and accurate sight-reading. Students participate in performance, directed listening, transcription, and analysis. Special emphasis is placed on the historical significance of Jazz as "America's Original Art Form" and on the influence of jazz on all succeeding forms of popular music.  Audition required.

Music: US Orchestra
Students will focus on the study and performance of the core repertoire for orchestra through a variety of skills that involve listening, analysis, evaluation and performances. Performances include concerts, school assemblies and community service performances. Students will demonstrate progress in mastery of rehearsal repertoire and assignments given in sectionals through individual practice. Private lessons are strongly encouraged for all students.

Music: String Quartet
This class provides an opportunity for advanced string players to develop their ensemble skills and meet the challenge of performing in a small group.  Emphasis will be placed on sight reading and listening skills. Careful consideration is given to the selection of repertoire for the various groups to ensure that each individual student's needs are met.  The repertoire is carefully chosen from the Baroque, Classical and Romantic period. Depending on the various instrumentation the ensembles may be made up of duos, trios, or quartets. The chamber groups may perform several times throughout the school year at concerts and other functions in the community.

Music: US Symphonic Orchestra
The Wind Ensemble is intended for the advanced upper school musician and will focus on the study and performance of the core repertoire for winds and percussion though a variety of performing media, critical listening, analysis and evaluation. There is a strong emphasis on individual practice and preparation. Students will demonstrate progress in mastery of rehearsal repertoire and on assignments given in sectionals through individual practice. Classes will include a survey of music history, improvisation and compositional technique, careers in music, and  introductory experiences in music technology. Instructor approval required.

Middle School P.E.

The physical education program at Waterford seeks to improve each student's physical health through a safe, diversified program that emphasizes health and fitness as life-long goals. The program also highlights the important role that athletics plays in a student's experience. At Waterford, athletics is recognized as a commitment that offers unique learning experiences and, as such, plays a complementary role to a student's intellectual growth. The lasting success of Waterford athletics is best measured by the kind of person, not just the kind of athlete, that it produces. The coaches at Waterford guide the process as they teach students to think critically and analyze intelligently, using skills that are as useful on the field as they are in the laboratory. Waterford's main goal is to produce athletes who will be successful both on and off the field, athletes who understand that the lessons that they learned about the pursuit of excellence are applicable even after the final whistle.

PE: VI

This class is designed to encourage an appreciation and an interest in participating in physical activities, including games, sports, recreation, team building and leisure activities.  It challenges students to develop and maintain physical fitness to the fullest maximum capabilities. Students focus on the development of appropriate social skills as they work together in class.

PE: MS Fitness

This class will combine elements of Strength and Conditioning and Aerobics to give students a better understanding of personal physical fitness. Students will rotate through activities in both disciplines within a 10-week term. The class will incorporate, from a beginning standpoint, weight training, step aerobics, cardiovascular/endurance training, relaxation techniques, circuit training, beginning plyometric training and basic strength training program philosophies. This class is for students who want to become more physically fit while gaining a better understanding as to how class activities are making them more fit.

PE: MS Wellness
The Wellness Workshops have been created to help each student make informed, confident decisions on how to be healthy, confident, safe and happy and they begin their adolscent years. These Workshops will cover a wide variety of topics such as Nutrition, Developing a healthy body image, Understanding Depression and Anxiety, Substance Abuse Prevention, Bullying, Online Safety, etc. Each 7th Grader will be enroled in the Workshops during ONE of their terms of PE. During that term, the students will be excused from their PE Class once a week to participate in the 10 workshops. The Workshops are an ungraded class, but will be of great assistance as they complete Middle School and prepare for Upper School.

PE: MS Outdoor
The Wasatch Course introduces students to the natural wonders of Utah through hiking, rock climbing, and minimum-impact camping activities.  It boosts students' self-confidence as they overcome challenges as an individual and as part of a team. They come away from the course with a wealth of outdoor skills, with a heightened appreciation for the beauty that surrounds them, and with a greater understanding of themselves. 

Upper School P.E.

The physical education program at Waterford seeks to improve each student's physical health through a safe, diversified program that emphasizes health and fitness as life-long goals. The program also highlights the important role that athletics plays in a student's experience. At Waterford, athletics is recognized as a commitment that offers unique learning experiences and, as such, plays a complementary role to a student's intellectual growth. The lasting success of Waterford athletics is best measured by the kind of person, not just the kind of athlete, that it produces. The coaches at Waterford guide the process as they teach students to think critically and analyze intelligently, using skills that are as useful on the field as they are in the laboratory. Waterford's main goal is to produce athletes who will be successful both on and off the field, athletes who understand that the lessons that they learned about the pursuit of excellence are applicable even after the final whistle.

P.E.: US Aerobics
This term in aerobics the students learn the importance of aerobic activity.  Aerobic principles are taught and practiced, including target heart rate, proper stretching techniques, and basic muscle identification.  The class covers floor and step aerobics, muscle toning, and circuit training (implementing floor, step, and muscle toning). Periodically, the students engage in a "relaxation day" where they lie down and relax their bodies and minds while listening to and responding to cues.  A fitness evaluation is administered at the beginning and end of the term. It consists of: step test, 50 yd. dash, mile run, push-ups. These activities are timed.

PE: Baseball History, Stats & Strategy
The purpose of this collaborative course would be to introduce students to the history, statistics, and strategy of baseball. Students will be exposed to American history through the lens of its national pastime. Students will also explore the story of baseball through its statistical measurements, learning to graph and analyze regressions, lines of best fit, and other key mathematical concepts. Students will also have the experience of going out to the Waterford baseball field and playing the game. They will be asked to throw, catch, hit, run, slide and get a bit of dirt on their jersey in order to physically experience what they’ve learned in the classroom.

P. E.: Indoor Soccer
The indoor soccer class is open to all interested soccer players.  Current US soccer team players will gain a new arena to work on their skills. The new player will enjoy the speed and quickness of the indoor game. The use of the walls and the high scoring nature of the indoor game is enjoyable for the new and experienced alike. Basic skills will be reviewed but the emphasis will be on playing the game.  All those excited about playing soccer for an entire term will have found a place in this class.

P.E.: US Racquetball
The students learn the basic rules and strategy of the game including how to referee a (class) tournament.  A beginning skill level is attained by the end of class including skills such as backhand, forehand, several serves, and return shots.

P.E.: US Sand Volleyball
This term length course is designed to accomadate both the beginner and advanced Volleyball players. Members of the Volleyball team can use this class as an opportunity to develop their already existing skills and teach the game to others, while casual and beginner Volleyball player will experience an uplifting and encouraging atmosphere where they can learn the game, and enjoy playing Volleyball with their classmates.

P.E.: Team Sports
The US Team Sports class is designed to give our students an opportunity to participate, as teams, in numerous different sports. The class will not only provide a good opportunity for the students to be active and healthy, but will serve as an opportunity for students to build friendships and take a healthy break from their busy academic schedule. The following team sports skills will be taught during this class:  ultimate Frisbee, flag football, basketball, volleyball, team handball, soccer, pickleball, kickball, frisbee-golf and baseball. Other sports and activities will also be considered.

PE: Ultimate Frisbee
Ultimate, is a fast-paced game played with a 175g disc. It combines elements of soccer, football and basketball. Everyone is a quarterback and everyone is a receiver. It is a high-energy, non-contact sport that requires a combination of agility, speed and throwing skill to play. Teams consist of seven players on the field at a time playing on a field similar to a football field.  The object of the game is for a team to pass the disc from player to player, catch the disc in their end zone thereby scoring a point.

P.E.: US Weight Training
This class focuses on the fundamentals of personal fitness and weight training techniques. Students are given information which helps them write their own program to be used through the term. Students are tested at the beginning and end of the term for their personal maximums on three lifts.  Two class periods a week are spent with the students working with their personal programs, and the third class period is spent doing group workouts, circuit training and other weightroom activities to explore a variety of exercises.

P.E.: US Outdoor
The Wasatch Course introduces students to the natural wonders of Utah through hiking, rock climbing, and minimum-impact camping activities.  At the same time, it boosts students' self-confidence as they overcome challenges as an individual and as part of a team. They come away from the course with a wealth of outdoor skills, with a heightened appreciation for the beauty that surrounds them, and with a greater understanding of themselves.  Students are expected to commit to the weekly afternoon session, which enables the class to explore the greater Wasatch environment until approximately 6:00 p.m.

PE: Yoga
Waterford students are faced with many academic and extracurricular demands. These students function in a fast-paced, rapidly changing, electronic world. Yoga can be a source of balance, well being and rejuvenation. Ashtanga Yoga is an approach directed toward growing, evolving individuals -- an approach that focuses on the moment yet is responsive to our ever-changing bodies and minds. Through the practice of Ashtanga Yoga students will learn to improve focus and awareness regarding breath control, concentration, postures, key muscles, and experience an enlightening level of self observation.

P.E.: Sand Volleyball
This term length course is designed to accomadate both the beginner and advanced Volleyball players. Members of the Volleyball team can use this class as an opportunity to develop their already existing skills and teach the game to others, while casual and beginner Volleyball player will experience an uplifting and encouraging atmosphere where they can learn the game, and enjoy playing Volleyball with their classmates.

PE: Weights/Team Sports
This term-long elective course will use utilize numerous physical techniques and methods to provide a well-balanced and aggressive workout opportunity for each enrolled participant. Throughout the term the Weightroom, the Yoga/Dance Studio, the East Gym and our outdoor fields and facilities will be used in both individual workouts and team sport activities, in order to build overall fitness, compete in team activities and take enjoyable break from the busy Waterford Schoolday

Upper School Science

The Waterford Science Program develops in each student: a.) A foundation in current human understanding of the fundamental physical and natural sciences underpinned by knowledge of the historical context of scientific advancement. b.) A capacity to evaluate arguments based on evidence, reach appropriate conclusions and pose scientific questions. c.)The skills of a scientist: to make observations, to draw on established knowledge, to organize effort in a logical manner, to collect and process data, to choose and safely use appropriate scientific tools, and to communicate within the global community of scientists. d.) The ability, and sense of responsibility, to apply science knowledge, skills, and thinking in the service of expanding human knowledge and maintaining the health of our planet. e.) An appreciation of the beauty of our universe and the uniquely human endeavor of science.

Science IX: Biology
Class IX Biology serves as a rigorous investigation into the essentials of living matter. General objectives include: understanding the basics of how life is organized and sustained, developing laboratory and field skills for biological study, gaining an appreciation for the diversity of life, and developing a knowledge of biology that will inspire and fuel future study in the natural sciences.

Science X: Chemistry Standard
This course offers an introduction to the principles and mathematics of college-preparatory chemistry. The topics we study--which include atomic structure, nuclear reactions, mole theory, phase change, gas laws, quantum theory, periodicity, chemical bonding, organic chemistry, chemical kinetics (rates and mechanisms), thermodynamics, equilibriums, acid-base theory, and redox reactions--are imbedded in the history of science from the French Revolution to the modern era. This class incorporates a laboratory period once a week, which includes 30 minutes of the lunch hour. While the conceptual rigor of this course often matches that of the Honors course, the mathematical and computational demands are not as great.

Science X: Chemistry Honors
This course offers a rigorous exposure to the principles and mathematics of college-preparatory chemistry. The topics we study--which include atomic structure, nuclear reactions, mole theory, phase change, gas laws, quantum theory, periodicity, chemical bonding, organic chemistry, chemical kinetics (rates and mechanisms), thermodynamics, equilibriums, acid-base theory, and redox reactions--are imbedded in the history of science from the French Revolution to the modern era. This class incorporates a laboratory period once a week, which includes 30 minutes of the lunch hour. A fluid understanding of Algebra II is a must for success in this course. This class is highly encouraged as a pre-requisite for Advanced Placement Chemistry.

Science XI: Physics
This introductory course emphasizes both the basic concepts of physics and the processes by which we study the physical world. Major areas covered are mechanics, wave theory, including sound and light, optics, electricity, magnetism and relativity. Labs and demonstrations are stressed, so that students experience physics. Pre-requisite is Advanced Algebra. This course can be followed by AP Physics (if calculus skills are advanced) and covers the material in the SAT II.

Science: AP Biology
This course is equivalent to a rigorous college biology course for majors.  It covers the equivalent of two semesters of college biology. The course work is highly intensive and requires a great deal of outside work on the part of the student.  The course is divided into four parts: molecular and cell biology, genetics and evolution, plant biology and animal biology. It is assumed that all students will take the AP exam in May.  

Science: AP Environmental Science
The AP Environmental Science course is the equivalent of a one-semester, introductory college course in environmental science. Unlike most other introductory-level college science courses, environmental science is inherently interdisciplinary, drawing from the sciences of geology, biology, environmental studies, chemistry, and geography. Within this are several major unifying themes including understanding the flow of energy within the biosphere, the integral interconnectivity of ecosystems and the role of human activities on the function of those ecosystems. The course provides students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving or preventing them.

Science: AP Chemistry
This course is equivalent to a year of Freshman college chemistry. Some of the topics covered throughout the year include stoichiometry, periodicity, atomic theory, quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular bonding, and the behavior of gases, equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, and electrochemistry. A solid background in mathematics and chemistry are crucial pre-requisites for AP Chemistry.   All students are expected to take the AP Chemistry exam in May.

Science: AP Physics C
This class is an in-depth study of classical Newtonian mechanics using math skills up to and including calculus. Students are prepared to take the C level exam in mechanics.  As time permits, the class will branch into Electricity and Magnetism. Students are required to have completed one year of physics and one year of calculus AB as prerequisites for this very challenging course.

Science: Marine Biology
This one-term course provides an introductory exploration of the unique community of organisms that inhabit salt water environments.  Beginning with a summary of the physical conditions which influence biological systems in the marine realm, the course includes discussions on the physiology, ecology, biogeography, and life history of marine organisms throughout the world's oceans.  We consider a variety of ecosystems including, mangroves, salt marshes, beaches, rocky inter-tidal, coral reef, pelagic and deep sea environments. This course is a natural extension of Waterford's Class IX Biology, extending the general principles of biological systems into a specific inquiry into a unique environment.

Science: Molecular Biology
This lab-based elective employs the techniques currently used to study the scientific principles (and their ethical ramifications) in the emerging field of molecular genetics and genomics. Dual emphasis is placed on the theoretical foundations of this "modern biology" as well as the practical problem-solving skills associated with such state-of-the-art biotechnologies as gel electrophoresis, restriction analysis, PCR, and recombinant DNA technology. As prerequisites, it is expected that students have completed one year of biology and one year of chemistry.

Science: Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine concerned with the uses, effects, and modes of action of drugs.From cancer drugs to antibiotics, we can better understand therapeutics by understanding their molecular properties. The course starts with an overview of organic chemistry, which is necessary for understanding drug structure and function. Next, we examine pharmacodynamics, describing how drugs affect the body to exert their therapeutic (and sometimes toxic) effects. Lastly, we will examine pharmacokinetics, which describes the effect the body has on the drug--absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Throughout the course, we will use case studies of specific drugs as examples of the pharmacologic principles we are studying.

Science: Robotics Lab
In robotics lab students design and build remote-controlled and autonomous robots that can carry out interesting functions. In the process of designing and building robotic systesms students experience the engineering process, learn how to safely use a wide variety of tools, learn how to troubleshoot, and gain experience in competently employing iterative design/build processes. During the winter term students apply engineering skills to solving challenges related to the FIRST Robotics competition.

Science: Utah and the Global Biosphere
Utah offers a unique collection of habitats, from red rock canyons of the Colorado Plateau to marshes of the Great Salt Lake to lush canyons of the Wasatch Range. Through this course students will come to know the geological history of Utah, the ecosystems of our state and how they relate to global abiotic systems. We closely investigate the diversity of land and life forms found along the Wasatch Front. Looking at our region through an ecological perspective, students gain knowledge about Utah and about how its systems compare and contrast to ecosystems selected from the earth's grand diversity. Students will take several field trips to examine local habitats including Dimple Dell Park, Great Salt Lake, Jordan River, and the Cottonwood Canyons. The course is team-taught by Science Department instructors.

Science: Vertebrate Zoology
Vertebrate zoology is offered for those Upper School students who want a bit more animal biology before they graduate.  All vertebrate classes will be taught/viewed/worshiped or consumed and we will emphasize evolutionary relationships among all the groups.  The course will have an avian and reptile bias and there will be ample time to look for both Utah migrants and residents. I should mention that virtually no college biology department offers any sort of Victorian zoology classes anymore, so this may be your only shot.  I care where the bunnies live.

Upper School Theater

In his Biographia Literaria, Samuel Taylor Coleridge described an essential element of the artistic process using the Latin phrase "laxis effertur habenis," meaning "carried on with slackened reins." The idea is that the artist must both master the technical side of the art and learn to open emotionally, physically and intellectually to creative inspiration. The technical elements are the reins, and when they are in place, the artist must trust the work enough to be able to slacken those reins and let creativity do the driving. This is a crucial step in the creative process because, ironically, the final impediment to creative inspiration is often the technique or craft. In class we say, "You have to know your stuff, and then you have to be able to let go of your stuff." All Waterford theater classes have this philosophy at their core.

Theater: Acting I
Building on the foundation of body and voice work, we move into scripted scene work. This class explores Stanislavsky's fundamentals of acting, focusing on the objective and the tactic. The students learn to articulate the objective in active terms, while manifesting the objective with both verb and image tactics. Various exercises are used to help the students break through emotional and physical barriers, and perform in a state of vulnerability. Scenes are selected from contemporary American realism plays.

Theater: Acting II
In this class we will continue our intensive objective and tactic based technique, along with a focused emphasis on vulnerability, so that the technical can give way to the creative. We will study scenes from Extended Realism (Ibsen, Chekhov, Tennessee Williams, O'Neill), and then branch off into Epic and Absurdist Theater (Brecht, Beckett, Pinter), if time permits. Prerequisite: Acting I.

Theater: Acting III Shakespeare
In this advanced acting class we will study classical acting techniques, focusing on the theater of Shakespeare. Students will learn to apply the Objective-based acting technique to Shakespeare's plays. They will incorporate the vocal and physical work explored in the core classes. They will learn to scan verse, apply heroic builds and inflections, analyze Shakespeare's heightened language, and use rhythm and sound to enrich the creation of a character. Students will also study Shakespeare's life and plays.  Prerequisites: Voice I, Acting I, and Acting II.

Theater: Movement I
This is the first of the core theater classes. We begin exploring physical expression by using Jacques Lecoq's Neutral Mask technique. We use the Neutral Mask to find Neutral Position in the body--a position free of excess tension. We also use the Alexander Technique to help identify and let go of excess tension. We then move on to the Blank Mask, which has no expression and no place from which to speak. It takes away the actor's facial expressions and voice, forcing him or her to express with the body. We will use a variation on Michael Chekhov's Psychological Gesture to help the students learn to "think" with the body. From Neutral Position, the actor then learns to tell stories and enact scenes using the Blank Mask and essential expressive movement. As the actor learns to commit fully to physical expression, the desired emotions and characterizations appear on the Blank Mask.

Theater: Movement II
The second year begins with a return to body work. We will start with the Larval Mask to help the students transition from Neutral and Blank Masks to Character Mask. The Character Mask covers one half or three quarters of the face, allowing the actor to speak. The Character Mask comes with an expression, and the actor studies that expression and considers what kind of body and voice belong to the Character. We will use traditional Commedia dell'Arte masks, studying stock characters, scenarios, and lazzi. In this class we delve deeper in to the idea that vulnerability and emotion are connected to the body. We will study the clown as the most vulnerable of characters.

Theater: Voice I
In the second of the core classes we focus on the voice. The students will learn proper voice production techniques based on the ideas of Kristin Linklater. Connected to their Linklater work, they will continue to work with the Alexander Technique, to which they were introduced in Movement 1. They will also learn proper articulation via the Standard American Stage Dialect, and how to transcribe a monologue into that dialect using the International Phonetic Alphabet. They will learn to use inflections and heroic builds to get the most out of heightened language. The students will perform monologues using the wide range of vocal tools acquired in this class.

Theater: Voice II
In this class we will continue our use of the International Phonetic Alphabet to describe sounds used in stage dialects other than Standard American. We will learn Standard British (Received Pronunciation) and western Irish, since these two dialects are so common in the theater today. Students will perform scenes and/or monologues in these dialects.  Prerequisite: Voice I.

Theater: Dramatic Theory and Literature
In this class we begin with a discussion of the origins of drama. We read Plato's ideas on mimetic art from his "Republic," and his ideas on acting in his "Ion." We look at what Shakespeare wrote about theater and acting through the character of Hamlet. We discuss how theater fits into the tradition of the Liberal Arts, examining free expression, political hegemony and propaganda, and connection to ritual. We then shift to the great plays of the theatrical canon. We discuss acting styles, writing styles, and theatrical spaces, in the context of theater history. Each term may have a different theme (i.e. Ancient Greek Drama, Modern Drama, Irish Drama, Verse Drama, etc.).